The subject of Conant's book of Ashby's papers is "Mechanisms of Intelligence." Ashby carefully and brilliantly defines intelligence as "appropriate selection" and then arrays the three step procedure to attain it. He did not invent or first apply the IA procedure himself but he was the first to announce to the world that it was ready for practical general service. Ashby IA is mathematical physics (1) arranged in a learning algorithm (2) and cycled recursively (3). Ashby realized that the maze of differential equations composing the transfer function of complex systems could be solved, in practical LaPlacian approximations, by sufficient enormous quantity of simple algebra calculations (3) by the computer. A recent example of IA was the finding of another prime number by the equivalent of 2500 years of computer calculations of arithmetic - using computer spare time collectively via the internet. Your cell phone system is IA real time.